# Number Theory

## Statistics of the Mulitiplicative Groups

For every positive integer n, the quotient ring Z/nZ is the natural ring whose additive group is cyclic. The "multiplicative group modulo n" is the group of invertible elements of this ring, with the multiplication operation. As it turns out, many quantities of interest to number theorists can be interpreted as "statistics" of these multiplicative groups. For example, the cardinality of the multiplicative group modulo n is simply the Euler phi function of n; also, the number of terms in the invariant factor composition of this group is closely related to the number of primes dividing n. Many of these statistics have known distributions when the integer n is chosen at random (the Euler phi function has a singular cumulative distribution, while the Erdös–Kac theorem tells us that the number of prime divisors follows an asymptotically normal distribution). Therefore this family of groups provides a convenient excuse for examining several famous number theory results and open problems. We shall describe how we know, given the factorization of n, the exact structure of the multiplicative group modulo n, and go on to outline the connections to these classical statistical problems in multiplicative number theory.

## Easy detection of (Di)Graphical Regular Representations

Graphical and Digraphical Regular Representations (GRRs and DRRs) are a concrete way to visualise the regular action of a group, using graphs. More precisely, a GRR or DRR on the group G is a (di)graph whose automorphism group is isomorphic to the regular action of G on itself by right-multiplication.

For a (di)graph to be a DRR or GRR on G, it must be a Cayley (di)graph on G. Whenever the group G admits an automorphism that fixes the connection set of the Cayley (di)graph setwise, this induces a nontrivial graph automorphism that fixes the identity vertex, which means that the (di)graph is not a DRR or GRR. Checking whether or not there is any group automorphism that fixes a particular connection set can be done very quickly and easily compared with checking whether or not any nontrivial graph automorphism fixes some vertex, so it would be nice to know if there are circumstances under which the simpler test is enough to guarantee whether or not the Cayley graph is a GRR or DRR. I will present a number of results on this question.

This is based on joint work with Dave Morris and with Gabriel Verret.

## On the Hardy Littlewood 3-tuple prime conjecture and convolutions of Ramanujan sums

The Hardy and Littlewood k-tuple prime conjecture is one of the most enduring unsolved problems in mathematics. In 1999, Gadiyar and Padma presented a heuristic derivation of the 2-tuples conjecture by employing the orthogonality principle of Ramanujan sums. Building upon their work, we explore triple convolution Ramanujan sums and use this approach to provide a heuristic derivation of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture concerning prime 3-tuples. Furthermore, we estimate the triple convolution of the Jordan totient function using Ramanujan sums.

## On sums of coefficients of polynomials related to the Borwein conjectures

Peter Borewein empirically discovered quite a number of mysteries involving sign patterns of coefficients of polynomials of the form $f_{p,s,n}(q):=\prod_{j=0}^{n} \prod_{k=1}^{p-1} (1-q^{pj+k})^{s}$ ($p$ a prime and $s,n \in \mathbb{N}$). In the case $(p,s) \in \{(3,1), (3,2)\}$, he conjectured that the coefficients follow a repeating + - - pattern, and in the case $(p,s)=(5,1)$, it was conjectured that the coefficients follow a repeating + - - - - sign pattern. We consider a weaker problem of finding the signs of partial sums of coefficients along some arithmetic progressions. We use a combinatorial sieving principle by Li-Wan and elementary character theory to asymptotically estimate and find the signs of these partial sums. We find that the signs of these partial sums are compatible with the sign pattern in Borewein's conjectures. This is based on joint work with Ankush Goswami.

## On some explicit results for the sum of unitary divisor function

Let $\sigma^*(n)$ be the sum of all unitary (i.e. coprime) divisors of $n$. As an analogue of Lehmer’s totient problem, Subbarao proposed the following conjecture. The congruence $\sigma^*(n)\equiv 1\pmod{n}$ is possible iff $n$ is a prime power. This problem is still open. We strengthen considerably the lower estimations for the potential counterexamples to Subbarao’s conjecture.

In the second part of our talk, we discuss the growth of the function $\sigma^*(n)$. We establish a new explicit upper bound, namely $\sigma^*(n)<1.2678n\log\log{n}$ for all $n\ge223092870$. For this purpose, we use explicit estimates for Chebyshev’s $\theta$-function and for some product defined over prime numbers.

## A Weyl-type inequality for irreducible elements in function fields, with applications

We establish a Weyl-type estimate for exponential sums over irreducible elements in function fields. As an application, we generalize an equidistribution theorem of Rhin. Our estimate works for polynomials with degree higher than the characteristic of the field, a barrier to the traditional Weyl differencing method. In this talk, we briefly introduce Lê-Liu-Wooley's original argument for ordinary Weyl sums (taken over all elements), and how we generalize it to estimate bilinear exponential sums with general coefficients. This is joint work with Jérémy Campagne (Waterloo), Thái Hoàng Lê (Mississippi) and Yu-Ru Liu (Waterloo).

## Basic reductions of abelian varieties

Given an abelian variety A defined over a number field, a conjecture attributed to Serre states that the set of primes at which A admits ordinary reduction is of positive density. This conjecture had been proved for elliptic curves (Serre, 1977), abelian surfaces (Katz 1982, Sawin 2016) and certain higher dimensional abelian varieties (Pink 1983, Fite 2021, etc).

In this talk, we will discuss ideas behind these results and recent progress for abelian varieties with non-trivial endomorphisms, including the case where A has almost complex multiplication by an abelian CM field, based on joint work with Cantoral-Farfan, Mantovan, Pries, and Tang.

Apart from ordinary reduction, we will also discuss the set of primes at which an abelian variety admits basic reduction, generalizing a result of Elkies on the infinitude of supersingular primes for elliptic curves. This is joint work with Mantovan, Pries, and Tang.

## Conditional estimates for logarithms and logarithmic derivatives in the Selberg class

The Selberg class consists of functions sharing similar properties to the Riemann zeta function. The Riemann zeta function is one example of the functions in this class. The estimates for logarithms of Selberg class functions and their logarithmic derivatives are connected to, for example, primes in arithmetic progressions.

In this talk, I will discuss about effective and explicit estimates for logarithms and logarithmic derivatives of the Selberg class functions when Re(s) ≥ 1/2+ where

## Quantitative estimates for the size of an intersection of sparse automatic sets

In 1979, Erdős conjectured that for $k \ge 9$, $2^k$ is not the sum of distinct powers of 3. That is, the set of powers of two (which is 2-automatic) and the 3-automatic set consisting of numbers whose ternary expansions omit 2 has finite intersection. In the theory of automata, a theorem of Cobham (1969) says that if $k$ and $\ell$ are two multiplicatively independent natural numbers then a subset of the natural numbers that is both $k-$ and $\ell$-automatic is eventually periodic. A multidimensional extension was later given by Semenov (1977). Motivated by Erdős' conjecture and in light of Cobham's theorem, we give a quantitative version of the Cobham-Semenov theorem for sparse automatic sets, showing that the intersection of a sparse k-automatic subset of $\mathbb{N}^d$ and a sparse $\ell$-automatic subset of $\mathbb{N}^d$ is finite. Moreover, we give effectively computable upper bounds on the size of the intersection in terms of data from the automata that accept these sets.

## Sign changes of the error term in the Piltz divisor problem

For an integer k≥3; Δk (x) :=∑n≤xdk(n)-Ress=1 (ζk(s)xs/s), where dk(n) is the k-fold divisor function, and ζ(s) is the Riemann zeta-function. In the 1950's, Tong showed for all large enough X; Δk(x) changes sign at least once in the interval [X, X + CkX1-1/k] for some positive constant Ck. For a large parameter X, we show that if the Lindelöf hypothesis is true, then there exist many disjoint subintervals of [X, 2X], each of length X1-1/k-ε such that Δk (x) does not change sign in any of these subintervals. If the Riemann hypothesis is true, then we can improve the length of the subintervals to << X1-1/k (logX)-k^2-2. These results may be viewed as higher-degree analogues of a theorem of Heath-Brown and Tsang, who studied the case k = 2. This is joint work with Siegfred Baluyot.