# Scientific

## The Bootstrap Learning Algorithm

Constructing and training the neural network depends on various types of Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) methods, with adaptations that help with convergence by boosting the speed of the gradient search. Convergence for existing algorithms requires a large number of observations to achieve high accuracy with certain classes of functions. We work with a different, non-curve-tracking technique with the potential of achieving better speeds of convergence. In this talk, the new idea of 'decoupling' hidden layers by bootstrapping and using linear stochastic approximation is introduced. By utilizing resampled observations, the convergence of this process is quick and requires a lower number of data points. This proposed bootstrap learning algorithm can deliver quick and accurate estimates. This boost in speed allows the approximation of classes of functions within a fraction of the observations required with traditional neural network training methods.

## Central Limit Theorems in Analytic Number Theory

Central limit theorem is a significant result in probability. It states that under some assumptions, the behavior of the average of identically distributed independent random variables tends towards that of the standard Gaussian random variable as the number of variables tends to infinity. In number theory, Erdős-Kac theorem is an example of this which is about the distribution of an arithmetic function while Selberg's central limit theorem is about the distribution of the Riemann zeta-function. In this talk, we aim to provide some explanations toward the proofs of these results and mention some versions of Selberg's theorem.

## L-Functions of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers

Elliptic curves are one of the major objects of study in number theory. Over finite fields, their zeta functions were proven to be rational by F. K. Schmidt in 1931. In 1985, R. Schoof devised an algorithm to compute zeta functions of elliptic curves over finite fields by directly computing the numerators of these rational functions modulo sufficiently many primes. Over function fields of positive characteristic p, we know from the work of A. Grothendieck, M. Artin, J.L. Verdier (1964/1965) and others, that their L-functions are rational. They are even polynomials with integer coefficients if we assume that their j-invariants are nonconstant rational functions, as shown by P. Deligne in 1980 using a result of J.-I. Igusa (1959).

Therefore, we can meaningfully study the reduction of the L-function of an elliptic curve E with nonconstant j-invariant modulo an integer N. In 2003, C. Hall gave a formula for that reduction modulo N, provided the elliptic curve had rational N-torsion.

In this talk, we first obtain, under the assumptions of C. Hall, a formula for the L-function of any of the infinitely many quadratic twists of E. Secondly, without any condition on the rational 2-torsion subgroup of E, we give a formula for the quotient modulo 2 of L-functions of any two quadratic twists of E. Thirdly, we illustrate that sometimes the reduced L-function is enough to determine important properties of the L-function itself. More precisely, we use the previous results to compute the global root numbers of an infinite family of quadratic twists of some elliptic curve and, under extra assumptions, find in most cases the exact analytic rank of each of these quadratic twists. Finally, we use our formulas to compute directly some degree 2 L-functions, in analogy with the algorithm of Schoof.

## Total Variation Flow on metric measure spaces

In this project, we discuss some fine properties and the existence of variational solutions to the Total Variation Flow. Instead of the classical Euclidean setting, we intend to work mostly in the general setting of metric measure spaces.

During the past two decades, a theory of Sobolev functions and BV functions has been developed in this abstract setting. A central motivation for developing such a theory has been the desire to unify the assumptions and methods employed in various specific spaces, such as weighted Euclidean spaces, Riemannian manifolds, Heisenberg groups, graphs, etc.

The Total Variation Flow can be understood as the process of diminishing the total variation using the gradient descent method. This idea can be reformulated using variational solutions, and it gives rise to a definition of parabolic minimizers. The approach’s advantages using a minimization formulation include much better convergence and stability properties. This is essential as the solutions naturally lie only in the space of BV functions.

More details on the abstract are available here: https://www.pims.math.ca/scientific-event/230222-tppfscp

## Sources, sinks, and sea lice: determining patch contribution and transient dynamics in marine metapopulations

Sea lice are a threat to the health of both wild and farmed salmon and an economic burden for salmon farms. Open-net salmon farms act as reservoirs for sea lice in near coastal areas, which can lead to elevated sea louse levels on wild salmon. With a free living larval stage, sea lice can disperse tens of kilometers in the ocean, both from salmon farms onto wild salmon and between salmon farms. This larval dispersal connects local sea louse populations on salmon farms and thus modelling the collection of salmon farms as a metapopulation can lead to a better understanding of which salmon farms are driving the overall growth of sea lice in a salmon farming region. In this talk I will discuss using metapopulation models to specifically study sea lice on salmon farms in the Broughton Archipelago, BC, and more broadly to better understand the transient and asymptotic dynamics of marine metapopulations.

## Euler's divergent series and primes in arithmetic progressions

Euler's divergent series $\sum_{n>0} n!z^n$ which converges only for $z = 0$ becomes an interesting object when evaluated with respect to a p-adic norm (which will be introduced in the talk). Very little is known about the values of the series. For example, it is an open question whether the value at one is irrational (or even non-zero). As individual values are difficult to reach, it makes sense to try to say something about collections of values over sufficiently large sets of primes. This leads to looking at primes in arithmetic progressions, which is in turn raises a need for an explicit bound for the number of primes in an arithmetic progression under the generalized Riemann hypothesis.

During the talk, I will speak about both sides of the story: why we needed good explicit bounds for the number of primes in arithmetic progressions while working with questions about irrationality, and how we then proved such a bound.

The talk is joint work with Tapani Matala-aho, Neea Palojärvi and Louna Seppälä. (Questions about irrationality with T. M. and L. S. and primes in arithmetic progressions with N. P.)

## A new explicit bound for the Riemann zeta function

I give a new explicit bound for the Riemann zeta function on the critical line. This is joint work with Dhir Patel and Andrew Yang. The context of this work highlights the importance of reliability and reproducibility of explicit bounds in analytic number theory.

This event is part of the PIMS CRG Group on L-Functions in Analytic Number Theory. More details can be found on the webpage here: https://sites.google.com/view/crgl-functions/crg-weekly-seminar

## Optimal transport in statistics and Pitman efficient multivariate distribution-free testing

In recent years, the problem of optimal transport has received significant attention in statistics and machine learning due to its powerful geometric properties. In this talk, we introduce the optimal transport problem and present concrete applications of this theory in statistics. In particular, we will propose a general framework for distribution-free nonparametric testing in multi-dimensions, based on a notion of "multivariate ranks" defined using the theory of optimal transport. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach by constructing exactly distribution-free tests for testing the equality of two multivariate distributions. We investigate the consistency and asymptotic distributions of these tests, both under the null and local contiguous alternatives. We further study their local power and asymptotic (Pitman) efficiency, and show that a subclass of these tests achieve attractive efficiency lower bounds that mimic the classical efficiency results of Hodges and Lehmann (1956) and Chernoff and Savage (1958).

## Ratner/Masur equidistribution by orbit matching

In a 1992 article where she surveyed her recent breakthrough on unipotent flows on homogeneous spaces, Ratner presented an argument for the equidistribution of horospherical orbits in the context of horocycle flow on SL(2,R)/Lattice. This idea is separate from the ideas in her celebrated work on unipotent flows and I will present her argument for horospherical equidistribution in the simplest situation I can think of: proving the ergodicity of a particular directional flow on the flat two torus. Ratner's argument has similarities to Masur's criterion for unique ergodicity of translation flows, proven around the same time. Time permitting I will comment on Masur's criterion as well.

## Fluctuations in the distribution of Frobenius automorphisms in number field extensions

**Florent Jouve (Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, France)**

Given a Galois extension of number fields L/K, the Chebotarev Density Theorem asserts that, away from ramified primes, Frobenius automorphisms equidistribute in the set of conjugacy classes of Gal(L/K). In this talk we report on joint work with D. Fiorilli in which we study the variations of the error term in Chebotarev's Theorem as L/K runs over certain families of extensions. We shall explain some consequences of this analysis: regarding first “Linnik type problems” on the least prime ideal in a given Frobenius set, and second, the existence of unconditional “Chebyshev biases” in the context of number fields. Time permitting we will mention joint work with R. de La Bretèche and D. Fiorilli in which we go one step further and study moments of the distribution of Frobenius automorphisms.